El right of transformation It is the right to translate, adapt or carry out any other modification in the form of a work from which a different work is derived. (art. 21 of the Intellectual Property Law (LPI) ). The translations, the adaptations for children, abstracts and extracts, theatrical versions, modifications of images or logos are derived works ...
Except for works that are free of intellectual property (art. 13 LPI) or that are in the public domain (art. 41 LPI), no work can be transformed without the authorization of the author or holder of the rights.
The parody of disclosed works are not considered transformations that require the consent of the author of the work object of parody, while they do not imply a risk of confusion with this one nor damage to the original work or its author is impaired.
In any case, the original authors should always be quoted and recognized, as well as providing a link to the original license in case the work is reused or disseminated.
According to the21 article of the LPI "the transformation of a work includes its translation, adaptation and any other modification of its form that derives in a different work".
As you point Verbauwhede, Lien (2006), it must be taken into account that the digitally manipulated images (for example, through image processing programs), can be considered derivative works, the use of which requires the explicit consent of the rights holder.