RESEARCHERS

Cite and elaborate the bibliography

If you are writing an academic work or your doctoral thesis and use content prepared by other people, quote them correctly in the text.

Quote correctly the bibliography consulted is an indicator of quality. So too Avoid plagiarism.

When you look for information

Always note the reference of any source of information you consult: a book, web resource, a recording, a doctoral thesis, an image, statistical or graphic data, etc. This is how you can quote them in the bibliography that you have to include at the end of your work.

Query what should include the bibliography of your work.

Mendeley It allows you to easily compile the bibliographic references of the documents consulted.

When you write the work

Paraphrase, that is to say, express with your own words the thoughts or ideas of other authors.

You have to analyze the ideas of others and contribute your vision on the subject, not only change the order of the words.

It is also worth mentioning the source from which you have extracted the original idea.

Original text "Cognitive computing begins to be applied to a large number of health information to identify patients with a higher risk of illness or readmission, thus preventive care is improved and more effective use of health resources is made".
Source: Torres, J .; Valero, M., 2015. Wiser computers The vanguard. 19 May 2015, no. 48004, p. 24
Paraphrase

Currently, as they analyze Torres and Valero (2015), the incipient application of cognitive computing to the large volume of available health data enables the identification of patients that can be the object of healthcare more likely. This identification increases the quality of preventive care as well as the efficiency in the use of health resources.

Bibliography Torres, J .; Valero, M., 2015. Wiser computers The vanguard. 19 May 2015, no. 48004, p. 24.

If you quote a text from another author, you must enclose it in quotation marks. You must add the reference of the document that is cited.

The texts can be transcribed verbatim, in the original language, or translated into another language. In the latter case, it should be clearly indicated.

Check how the citations and the corresponding bibliography are built in name and date system (Harvard) i the numerical system.

Original text "Cognitive computing begins to be applied to a large number of health information to identify patients with a higher risk of illness or readmission, thus preventive care is improved and more effective use of health resources is made".
Source: Torres, J .; Valero, M., 2015. Wiser computers The vanguard. 19 May 2015, no. 48004, p. 24
Citation Currently, "Cognitive computation begins to be applied to a large number of health data to identify patients with the greatest risk of illness or readmission. Thus, preventive care is improved and more effective use of health resources is made." (Torres and Valero 2015)
Translated citation

Currently, "Cognitive computation begins to apply to a large number of health data to identify patients with the greatest risk of illness or readmission. Thus, preventative care is improved and more effective use of health resources is carried out." (Torres and Valero 2015, translated from Spanish)

Bibliography Torres, J .; Valero, M., 2015. Wiser computers The vanguard. 19 May 2015, no. 48004, p. 24.

If the fragment is long, the paragraph is blurry and the font is smaller:

Guixà (2017, p. 27) states:

Much of the risks that may be exposed to the work are derived from the installation and equipment itself and have national or autonomous legislation that affects them totally.
It should be noted that, in fact, compliance with these laws results in the risks of the equipment or installation being controlled. Therefore, it is considered ...

This system is used extensively in works and publications of science and technology.

It is characterized to include the date of publication behind the author's name and to use these two elements to identify the documents within the citations included in the text:

A work by an author
Citation in the text:

As pointed out by Collins (1995), we can conclude that ...

In our case, we follow the user-oriented model (Collins, 1995).

Reference to the bibliography: Collins, D., 1995. Designing object-oriented user interfaceswathmey Redwood City: Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 080535350X.
Several works by an author

A minuscule letter is added after the editing year. You can also incorporate the page, table number, etc. to locate the fragment that we are quoting:

In Figure 5.1 we can see how Allen's 13 temporary operators (1983a) can be expressed in ...

... the photographic operator at transaction time (Jensen 1993, p. 145).
(Walker 1988, 1990, 1993)
The Plexousakis method (1993, p. 35; 1996, p. 64) formulates the integrity constraints ...
(Rooms 1995, vol. 2: p. 168, vol. 3: p. 119-123)
Several works by different authors

All are written within the same parentheses, separated by semicolon:

... we studied the semantics of the rules of temporal integrity (Sistac 1994; Martín, L. 2000; Martín, S. 2000).
Following the presented chronology (Snodgrass 1990, 1992, 1993; Stam 1991), we will frame the first ...
(Jensen 1992, p.52; 1996, fig. 4. Soon 1993, vol 2: p. 25-26)
A work by several authors

Up to three authors, all three are mentioned. If there are more than three, the name of the first one is quoted and "and others" or "et al." Are added.

If in the same text confusion of groups of authors that begin with the same surname, the second surname is added.

Two authors Other applications of this model are in the area of ​​deductive databases (Teniente and Olivé 1992).
Three authors (Forrester-Knauss, Perren and Alsaker 2012)
More than three authors

These four criteria (Doucet and others 1997) will help us ...

These four criteria (Doucet et al. 1997) will help us ...

Works without main author

They are cited by the title, as in the bibliography:

... throughout those years studied (Catalog of courses on Nuclear Energy, 1961).

The citations included in the text can also be linked to the corresponding references in the bibliography by adding numbers after the mentioned concept or author.

The numbers are placed in parentheses, brackets or as super-indexes.

If specific parts of a resource are mentioned, volume numbers, pages, etc. They can be indicated after the citation number.

There are two systems: single numbering and continuous numbering.

Unique numbering

The resulting bibliography appears ordered numerically according to the first citation made of each resource. Each resource appears only once in the bibliography.

Example of text
At present, agriculture presents new aspects related to the social sciences that must be taken into account (13, 15). It is known for organic farming any agrarian system whose techniques do not degrade the environment (14). One of the advantages of the plant cover is the increase in the amount of organic matter in the surface layers (15).
There are psychological factors that can influence the purchase of organic foods (13). As Klöckner points out (13 p. 56) "It has been shown that enhancing the diffusion of organic food in the market is more complex than just lowering the absolute price for organic food."
Resulting bibliography

13. Reed, M., ed. Organic food and agriculture: new trends and developments in social sciences [online]. Rike: InTech, 2012. ISBN 9789533077642 [Check: 19 April 2013]. Available to: <http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/1526>.

14. Training Center of the CAAE Association. Herbaceous crops in organic production [online]. Sevilla: Asociación para el Desarrollo Sostenible del Poniente Granadino, 2006 [Consultation: 13 December 2013]. Available to: <http://www.cbpae.org/index.php?option=com_abook&view=book&id=97:cultivos...

15. Junta de Andalucía. General Secretariat of Agriculture and Livestock. Manual of good agricultural practices in the different production systems of the Andalusian olive grove [online]. Seville: Andalusian Government, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, 2006 [Consultation: 13 December 2013]. Available to: <http://www.lasalmenas.es/manual/manual.pdf>.

Continuous numbering

The different citations of the same resource receive different numbers of notes, according to the order in which they appear in the text.

The resulting bibliography appears ordered numerically according to the order of appearance in the corresponding citation text (regardless of whether they are of the same resource or not).

Example of text
At present, agriculture presents new aspects related to the social sciences that must be taken into account (13, 14). It is known for organic farming any agrarian system whose techniques do not degrade the environment (15). One of the advantages of the plant cover is the increase in the amount of organic matter in the surface layers (16).
There are psychological factors that can influence the purchase of organic foods (17). As Klöckner points out (18) "It has been shown that enhancing the diffusion of organic food in the market is more complex than just lowering the absolute price for organic food."
Resulting bibliography

13. Reed, M., ed. Organic food and agriculture: new trends and developments in social sciences [online]. Rike: InTech, 2012. ISBN 9789533077642 [Check: 19 April 2013]. Available to: <http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/1526>.

14. Junta de Andalucía. General Secretariat of Agriculture and Livestock. Manual of good agricultural practices in the different production systems of the Andalusian olive grove [online]. Seville: Andalusian Government, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, 2006 [Consultation: 13 December 2013]. Available to: <http://www.lasalmenas.es/manual/manual.pdf>.

15. Training Center of the CAAE Association. Herbaceous crops in organic production [online]. Sevilla: Asociación para el Desarrollo Sostenible del Poniente Granadino, 2006 [Consultation: 13 December 2013]. Available to: <http://www.cbpae.org/index.php?option=com_abook&view=book&id=97:cultivos....

16. Junta de Andalucía. General Secretariat of Agriculture and Livestock, ref. 14.

17. Reed, M., ref. 13

18. Reed, M., ref. 13, p. 56

When you prepare the bibliography

Choosing the style is a decision that you have to take taking into account the scientific discipline of your work, the institution where you study or work and in case you publish a magazine article, the style that the publisher makes.

At the time of preparing academic work at the UPC,ISO 690. Check how to quote All types of documents following this standard.

The bibliography must include all the documents, as well as those quoted in the text as those that you have only consulted.

It serves to give credibility to the work that is presented, and to meet the academic and scientific rigor required.

Bibliographical references They guarantee that no plagiarism is committed, since they identify the sources of the texts, data, affirmations or graphs of other authors included in our work. They also allow other people to locate them. Consult how to make the bibliographic references of the different types of documents.

Sometimes, the rules for presenting theses, books, etc. They require images, graphics and other illustrations included in the text to be related to the bibliography (index of illustrations, tables, etc.).

Mendeley It facilitates the management of bibliographic references and the preparation of citations within the text and the final bibliography.

The bibliography must go to the end of the work, before the annexes and indexes.

According to the UNE-ISO 690 standard, the references are sorted alphabetically by the first element (author or title) and then by the date. The following criteria must be followed:

  • An entry with a single author is ordered before one that begins with the same author made in co-authorship.
  • If different works are referenced by the same authors and the same year of publication, they are sorted by title. In addition, if you use the "name and date" citation system, a letter that marks this order is added to the date: 2002, 2002b ...
  • The works that an author has published as editor, compiler, or director are sorted after those in which he has acted as author, according to the alphabetical order of the abbreviation used to designate the function (comp., Dir. , ed.).

If deemed necessary, the bibliography may be ordered according to other criteria, such as the thematic or geographical scope of the referenced documents.


Last update: 25 / 01 / 2019