How to use this information and how I quote it in my TFG / TFM

Make efficient use of the information you consult and get the most out of reading through synthesis and annotation exercises. Make good use of information sources. Appointment quickly and normally. Clearly organize your bibliography with bibliographic reference managers.

During the reading process, to extract the main ideas from the document, Make a quick first reading to get a general idea about what the document is about and one second reading taking the necessary notes to synthesize the idea of ​​the author.

From the reading of the document, the types of tools you can prepare are:

  • Annotations. They consist of pointing out the ideas of the author of the document on a topic.
  • Summary. It is the brief text that synthesizes the main contents of the document. Has to / from:
    • be brief, objective, clear and faithful to the original document;
    • include all the sections of the document;
    • In a research article, take into account the starting hypotheses, the methodology, the results and the conclusions;
    • use the same point of view as the author;
    • have a thread;
    • quote the original document;
    • not occupy more than 3% of the original document.
  • Outline It is a brief representation of the content and the information is the same as in a summary, the difference is that the words linked by arrows and keys are presented.
    Synoptic tables. They are used to compare ideas and points of view from various sources on the same topic, compare products, benefits, etc.
  • Concept maps. They represent the relationships between concepts hierarchically and are basically used to visualize concepts that are closely related to each other and evolutionary processes.
    Graphic It is a diagram that represents numerical data and is useful for analyzing the relationship between the data.
  • Citations and paraphrases. Quoting a passage verbatim consists of copying the text in quotation marks and indicating the source from which it was extracted. The paraphrase is to explain the content of the document but using other words.

The inclusion of texts and / or images of third parties in the work itself must be done correctly, by way of citation, in order to avoid plagiarism. Plagiarism consciously ignores the recognition of the original author, something that violates his rights. From the year 2020 it is mandatory that all TFG / TFM submitted have been previously reviewed with Ouriginal, anti-plagiarism software available at UPC.

Avoid plagiarism

Our original

The information used must be cited and given a bibliography form. The bibliography is a list of references of documents cited and consulted during the preparation of an academic work. It serves to give credibility to work and to comply with legislation on intellectual property and scientific ethics, which demands that the sources of the data, affirmations, images and graphics of other authors be identified.


How to make a bibliography

How to make a quote


To cite quickly and easily, the use of a reference manager is recommended. With these programs you can import documents into a personal library and organize them by adding tags and creating folders. It also allows you to include citations in Word, LibreOff documentsice and/or Google Docs and generate bibliographies simply and almost automatically.

Mendeley Zotero


Other referral reference managers are: EndNote, RefWorks  o JabRef.

Last update: 14 / 12 / 2022