As the European Commission collects in the document Guidelines on Open Access to Scientific Publications and Research Data in Horizon 2020:
"As far as possible, projects must then take measures to enable third parties to access, mine, exploit, reproduce and disseminate (free of charge for any user) this research data. One simple and effective way of doing this is to attach Creative Commons License (CC-BY
or CC0 tool
) to the data deposited (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/
It should be taken into account that public domain licenses are the means to offer the data as openly as possible, since the licensor waives all rights (as far as possible with the applicable law applicable).
It should also be considered that the 4.0 version of the licenses Creative Commons It presents some improvements that may be of interest in the case of the research data:
- Databases: coverage of the right "sui generis"of the databases, except for the explicit exclusion of the licensor.
- Authorization: improvement of the procedure with which an author can request the non-mention of his authorship, both in the reproductions of his work and in the works derived therefrom. In addition, the users of the works can recognize the authorship of the works used through a link to a web page where this information is listed.
- Interoperability: maximization of interoperability between CC licenses and other licenses.
- Others: "What's New in 4.0".
Alex Ball, a member of the Digital Curation Center, has developed the guide How to License Research Data, a document that includes several aspects that need to be considered when granting a license to the research data:
- Most projects can use standard licenses such as Creative Commons or Open Data Commons, but you can also make a personalized license according to the data casuistry and provided that you have the advice of professionals.
- In cases where none of the existing licenses is fully satisfactory, you can opt for the granting of multiple licenses ("multiple licensing").
- Creative Commons licenses treat datasets and databases as a whole, but not individual data included (differentiated from the databases or collection). This can be difficult in some complex cases, such as the collections of several copyrighted works.
- The databases are included among the works that can be offered in the public domain by means of the CC0 license. In relation to the remaining Creative Commons licenses, it is recommended to use the 4.0 version.
- There are other licenses, as part of the Open Data Commons project, which are specific to databases:
- Open Data Commons Attribution License (ODC-BY): A license that allows third parties to copy, distribute and use the database, as well as use it to create new content, databases or database collections (as long as the original database is cited ).
- Open Data Commons Database License (ODbL): It is the same license as the ODC-BY but, in the event that new derivative databases (not database collections or other possible derivative contents) are made, the same license must be granted that the base of original data. It also allows the application of Digital Rights Management (DRM) technology, both in the original database and the derivative, as long as an unrestricted copy of the database is offered alternately.
- Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and License (PDDL): License similar to CC0, but written specifically for databases. It allows you to copy, distribute and use the database, as well as create derivative works and databases, without any other restrictions.
As set forth in the preamble to these licenses Open Data Commons:
- ODC-BY i ODbL They only cover rights on the database, not on the contents of the database (images, audiovisual material, etc.). In this case, licensors will have to use ODbl together with other licenses.
- However, PDDL It can be used for databases or its contents (data), both jointly and individually.