Glossari

 

Aquest glossari és una mostra dels termes més representatius de Ronald A. Fisher. Les definicions han estat extretes dels recursos següents: 

Wikipedia en anglès (WIKIPEDIA-EN)   
Wikipedia en castellà (WIKIPEDIA-ES)  
Wolfram Science (WOLFRAM)
Oxford Reference Online (ORO)


Analysis of variance

A general procedure for partitioning the overall variability in a set of data into components due to specified causes and random variation. It involves calculating such quantities as the ‘between-groups sum of squares’ and the ‘residual sum of squares’, and dividing by the degrees of freedom to give so-called ‘mean squares’. The results are usually presented in an ANOVA table, the name being derived from the opening letters of the words ‘analysis of variance’. Such a table provides a concise summary from which the influence of the explanatory variables can be estimated and hypotheses can be tested, usually by means of F-tests .  

Citació: "Analysis of variance"  The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics. Christopher Clapham and James Nicholson. Oxford University Press, 2009. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 22 setembre 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t82.e87>

Més informació:

Wikipedia eng

Wikipedia es

Wolfram

ORO


Behrens–Fisher problema

A problem concerned with the comparison of the means of two populations having normal distributions with different variances. The problem was first discussed by B. V. Behrens in 1929. Although Behrens's method of solution was unclear, his conclusions were confirmed by Sir Ronald Fisher in 1935.

Citació: "Behrens–Fisher problem"  A Dictionary of Statistics. Graham Upton and Ian Cook. Oxford University Press, 2008.Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 22 setembre 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t106.e140>

Més informació:

Wikipedia eng

ORO


Design of experiments
Observational studies can suggest things for which the explanation lies with some hidden variable. For example, the performance of pupils taught in large classes is better than that of pupils in small classes, not because the large class is a more effective learning environment, but because schools operate larger classes for the more able. Experimental design methods seek to control the conditions under which observations are made so that any differences in outcome are genuinely attributable to the experimental conditions, and not to other confounding factors. Some of the most common methods are the use of paired or matched samples, randomization and blind trials.

Citació: "Experimental design"  The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics. Christopher Clapham and James Nicholson. Oxford University Press, 2009. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  22 setembre 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t82.e1061>

Més informació:

Wikipedia eng

Wikipedia es

ORO


Fisher information 

The amount of information that a sample provides about the value of an unknown parameter. Writing L as the likelihood for n observations from a distribution with parameter , Sir Ronald Fisher in 1922 defined the information, I(), as being given by.

Citació: "Fisher information"  A Dictionary of Statistics. Graham Upton and Ian Cook. Oxford University Press, 2008.Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  22 setembre 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t106.e611>

Més informació:

Wikipedia eng

ORO


Fisher's equation or Fisher-Kolmogorov equation

In mathematics, Fisher's equation, also known as the Fisher-Kolmogorov equation and the Fisher-KPP equation, named after R. A. Fisher and A. N. Kolmogorov, is the partial differential equation.

Citació: "Fisher's equation or Fisher-Kolmogorov equation". A Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 2011. 22 setembre 2011<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fisher%27s_equation>

Més informació:

Wikipedia eng


Fisher's exact test

A statistical test that can be applied to data in a 2 × 2 contingency table and is especially useful when the total sample size or some of the expected values are small so that the chi-square test cannot be used. This distribution-free test establishes the exact probability, under the null hypothesis that the row and column variables are independent, of obtaining a result as extreme or more extreme than the observed result assuming that the marginals (the row and column totals) are fixed. It is the prototypical randomization test. Also called Fisher's exact probability test, Fisher-Yates test. [Named after the English statistician and geneticist Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890–1962) who in 1934 encouraged Frank Yates (1902–94) to develop it].

Citació: "Fisher's exact test n."  A Dictionary of Psychology. Edited by Andrew M. Colman. Oxford University Press 2009. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  22 setembre 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t87.e3158>

Més informació:

Wikipedia eng

ORO


Fisher's method 

In statistics, Fisher's method,[1][2] also known as Fisher's combined probability test, is a technique for data fusion or "meta-analysis" (analysis of analyses). It was developed by and named for Ronald Fisher. In its basic form, it is used to combine the results from several independent tests bearing upon the same overall hypothesis (H0).

Citació: "Fisher's method". A Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 2011. 22 setembre <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fisher%27s_method>

Més informació:

Wikipedia eng


Fisher's z-distribution

In statistics, a method of transforming product-moment correlation coefficients into standard scores or z scores to facilitate interpretation and to enable tests such as those for the significance of the difference between two correlation coefficients to be carried out. [Named after the English statistician and geneticist Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890–1962)]

Citació: "Fisher's r to z transformation n."  A Dictionary of Psychology. Edited by Andrew M. Colman. Oxford University Press 2009. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.  22 setembre 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t87.e3159>
Més informació:

Wikipedia eng

ORO


Iris flower data set or Fisher's Iris data set

The Iris flower data set or Fisher's Iris data set is a multivariate data set introduced by Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1936) as an example of discriminant analysis.[1] It is sometimes called Anderson's Iris data set because Edgar Anderson collected the data to quantify the geographic variation of Iris flowers in the Gaspé Peninsula.

Citació: "Iris flower data set of Fisher's Iris data set". A Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 2011. 22 setembre 2011 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fisher%27s_iris>

Més informació:

Wikipedia eng


Maximum likelihood

A commonly used method for obtaining an estimate of an unknown parameter of an assumed population distribution. The likelihood of a data set depends upon the parameter(s) of the distribution (or probability density function) from which the observations have been taken. In cases where one or more of these parameters are unknown, a shrewd choice as an estimate would be the value that maximizes the likelihood. This is the maximum likelihood estimate (mle). Expressions for maximum likelihood estimates are frequently obtained by maximizing the natural logarithm of the likelihood rather than the likelihood itself (the result is the same). Sir Ronald Fisher introduced the method in 1912.

Citació:  "method of maximum likelihood"  A Dictionary of Statistics. Graham Upton and Ian Cook. Oxford University Press, 2008.Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.   22 setembre 2011  <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t106.e1035>

Més informació:

Wikipedia eng

Wikipedia es

Wolfram

ORO


 

 

Comparteix aquest contingut amb: